Terrestrial Ecosystem Model in R (TEMIR) version 1.0: Simulating ecophysiological responses of vegetation to atmospheric chemical and meteorological changes
Abstract. The newly developed offline land ecosystem model Terrestrial Ecosystem Model in R (TEMIR) version 1.0 is described here. This version of the model simulates plant ecophysiological (e.g., photosynthetic, stomatal) responses to varying meteorological conditions and concentrations of CO2 and ground-level ozone (O3) based on prescribed meteorological and atmospheric chemical inputs from various sources. Driven by the same meteorological data used in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, this allows asynchronously coupled experiments with GEOS-Chem simulations with unique coherency for investigating biosphere-atmosphere chemical interactions. TEMIR agrees well with FLUXNET site-level gross primary productivity (GPP) in terms of both the diurnal and monthly cycles (correlation coefficients R2 > 0.85 and R2 > 0.8, respectively) for most plant functional types (PFTs). Grass and shrub PFTs have larger biases due to generic model representations. The model performs best when driven by local site-level meteorology rather than reanalyzed gridded meteorology. Simulation using gridded meteorology agrees well for annual GPP in seasonality and spatial distribution with a global average of 134 Pg C yr–1. Application of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to infer canopy conditions from gridded meteorology does not improve model performance, predicting a uniform increase of +21 % for global GPP. Present-day O3 concentrations simulated by GEOS-Chem and an O3 damage scheme at high sensitivity show a 2 % reduction in global GPP with prominent reductions by up to 15 % in eastern China and the eastern US. Regional correlations are generally unchanged when O3 is present, and biases are reduced especially for regions with high O3 damages. An increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration by 20 ppmv from year-2000 to year-2010 level modestly decreases O3 damage due to reduced stomatal uptake, consistent with ecophysiological understanding. Our work showcases the utility of this version of TEMIR for evaluating biogeophysical responses of vegetation to changes in atmospheric composition and meteorological conditions.
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