15 Jun 2023
 | 15 Jun 2023

Measurement report: Atmospheric Ice Nuclei at Changbai Mountain (2623 m a.s.l.) in Northeastern Asia

Yue Sun, Yujiao Zhu, Yanbin Qi, Lanxiadi Chen, Jiangshan Mu, Ye Shan, Yu Yang, Yanqiu Nie, Ping Liu, Can Cui, Ji Zhang, Mingxuan Liu, Lingli Zhang, Yufei Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Mingjin Tang, Wenxing Wang, and Likun Xue

Abstract. Atmospheric ice nucleation plays an important role in modifying the global hydrological cycle and atmospheric radiation balance. To date, few comprehensive field observations of ice nuclei have been carried out at high-altitude sites, which is close to the height of mixed-phase cloud formation. In this study, we measured the concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) in the immersion freezing mode at the summit of Changbai Mountain (2623 m above sea level), Northeast Asia, in summer 2021. The cumulative number concentration of INPs varied from 3.8 × 10−3 L−1 to 2.3 L−1 over the temperature range from −20.5 °C to −5.5 °C. Proteinaceous-based biological materials accounted for the majority of INPs, with the proportion of biological INPs (bio-INPs) exceeding 75 % across the entire freezing temperature range, with this proportion even exceeding 90 % above −13.0 °C. At freezing temperatures ranging from −11 °C to −8 °C, bio-INPs were found to significantly correlate with wind speed and Ca2+, and weakly correlate with isoprene and its oxidation products (isoprene × O3), suggesting that biological aerosols may attach to soil dust surfaces and contribute to INPs. During the daytime, bio-INPs showed a positive correlation with the planetary boundary layer height, with the valley breezes from southwestern mountainous regions also influencing the concentration of INPs. Moreover, the long-distance transport of air mass from the Japan Sea and South Korea significantly contributed to the high concentrations of bio-INPs. Our study emphasizes the important role of biological sources of INPs in the high-altitude atmosphere of northeastern Asia, as well as the significant contribution of long-range transport to the INPs concentrations in this region.

Yue Sun et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-925', Anonymous Referee #3, 17 Jul 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Yujiao Zhu, 04 Oct 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-925', Anonymous Referee #1, 31 Jul 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Yujiao Zhu, 04 Oct 2023

Yue Sun et al.

Data sets

This is the raw dataset for Measurement report: Atmospheric Ice Nuclei at Changbai Mountain (2623 m a.s.l.) in Northeastern Asia Yue Sun

Yue Sun et al.


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Short summary
Field observations were conducted at the top of Changbai Mountain in Northeast Asia. Our findings indicate that the ice-nucleating particles (INPs) were mainly dominated by biological sources, accounting for over 90 % above the freezing temperature of −13.0 °C. Biological INPs were found to attached to soil dust surfaces, and their concentrations influenced by a combination of factors, such as the planetary boundary layer height, valley breezes, and long-distance transport of air mass.