24 Mar 2023
 | 24 Mar 2023

Enrichment of calcium in sea spray aerosol through bulk measurements and individual particle analysis during the R/V Xuelong cruise over the Ross Sea, Antarctica

Bojiang Su, Xinhui Bi, Zhou Zhang, Yue Liang, Congbo Song, Tao Wang, Yaohao Hu, Lei Li, Zhen Zhou, Jinpei Yan, Xinming Wang, and Guohua Zhang

Abstract. Calcium is known to be enriched in sea spray aerosols (SSA), but its controlling factors and individual mixing states remain ambiguous. Here, we investigate the impact of various environmental factors on the water-soluble calcium (Ca2+) distribution in SSA through R/V Xuelong cruise observations over the Ross Sea, Antarctica, from December 2017 to February 2018. We observed enhanced Ca2+ enrichment in aerosol samples at lower temperatures (< -3.5 °C), lower wind speeds (< 7 m s-1) and in the presence of sea ice. Further individual particle mass spectral analysis indicated that considerable fractions of calcium in SSA likely bind with organic matter (a single-particle type, OC-Ca), which may be neglected in current water-soluble estimation of Ca2+ enrichment. Also, this is the first time that a calcium-dominated single-particle type has been observed in the Antarctic atmosphere. We suggest that a broader focus on individual OC-Ca and its subsequent environmental behavior should be included in future Antarctic atmospheric modeling. Given the context of global warming and sea ice retreat, an understanding of the mechanisms of calcium enrichment and mixing state of individual particles involved is valuable for further recognizing the aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the Antarctica summer.

Bojiang Su et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-322', Anonymous Referee #1, 21 Apr 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Bojiang Su, 06 Jun 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-322', Anonymous Referee #2, 11 May 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Bojiang Su, 06 Jun 2023

Bojiang Su et al.


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Short summary
During R/V Xuelong cruise observations over the Ross Sea, Antarctica, the concentrations of water-soluble Ca2+ and the mass spectra of individual particles were measured. Our results indicated that lower temperature, lower wind speed, and the presence of sea ice may facilitate Ca2+ enrichment in SSAs and highlighted the potential contribution of organically complexed calcium to calcium enrichment, which has been neglected when only Ca2+ was considered in the estimation.