Deep Temporal Convolutional Networks for F10.7 Radiation Flux Short-Term Forecasting
Abstract. F10.7, the solar radiation flux at a wavelength of 10.7 cm (F10.7), is often used as an important parameter input in various space weather models and is also a key parameter for measuring the strength of solar activity levels. Therefore, it is valuable to study and forecast F10.7. In this paper, the temporal convolutional network (TCN) approach in deep learning is used to predict the daily value of F10.7. The F10.7 series from 1957 to 2019 are used, which the datasets from 1957 to 2008 are used for training and the datasets from 2009 to 2019 are used for testing. The results show that the TCN model of prediction F10.7 with a root mean square error (RMSE) from 5.03 to 5.44sfu and correlation coefficients (R) as high as 0.98 during solar cycle 24. The overall accuracy of the TCN forecasts is better than those of the widely used autoregressive (AR) models and the results of the US Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) forecasts especially for 2 and 3 days ahead. In addition ,the TCN model is slightly better than other neural network models like backward propagation network (BP) and long short-term memory network (LSTM) in terms of the solar radiation flux F10.7 forecast. The TCN model predicted F10.7 with a lower root mean square error, a higher correlation coefficient and the better overall model prediction.
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