Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1262
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1262
24 May 2024
 | 24 May 2024
Status: this preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Two distinct ship emission profiles for organic-sulfate source apportionment of PM in sulfur emission control areas

Kirsten N. Fossum, Chunshui Lin, Niall O'Sullivan, Lu Lei, Stig Hellebust, Darius Ceburnis, Aqeel Afzal, Anja Tremper, David Green, Srishti Jain, Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Colin O'Dowd, John Wenger, and Jurgita Ovadnevaite

Abstract. Source apportionment quantitatively links pollution to its source, but can be difficult to perform in areas like ports where emissions from ship and other port-related activities are intrinsically linked. Here we present the analysis of aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) data and combined organic and sulfate ion positive matrix factorization (PMF) during an intensive measurement campaign in Dublin Port. Two main types of ship emissions were identified by this technique: sulfate-rich (S-Ship) and organic-rich (O-Ship). The S-Ship emissions were attributed to heavy fuel oil use and are characterised by particles with standard V/Ni ratios from 2.7–3.9 and a large fraction of acidic sulfate aerosol. The O-Ship emissions were attributed to low-sulfur fuel types and were comprised mostly of organic aerosol (OA) with the V/Ni ratios ranging only from 0–2.3. O-Ship plumes occurred over three-times more frequently than S-Ship plumes during the measurement period. Ship plumes had PM1 concentrations in the range 4–252 µg m-3, with extreme concentrations usually lasting for 5–35 minutes. A third minor ship emission factor (X-Ship) was resolved by PMF, but not clearly attributable to any specific fuel type. Despite their short duration, shipping emission plumes were frequent and contributed to at least 28 % of PM1 (i.e. 14 % O-Ship, 12 % S-Ship, and 2 % X-Ship). Moreover, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and black carbon could also originate, at least in part, from ship emissions and shipping related activities, suggesting that the shipping contribution to ambient PM is likely higher, with a maximum of 47 %.

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Kirsten N. Fossum, Chunshui Lin, Niall O'Sullivan, Lu Lei, Stig Hellebust, Darius Ceburnis, Aqeel Afzal, Anja Tremper, David Green, Srishti Jain, Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Colin O'Dowd, John Wenger, and Jurgita Ovadnevaite

Status: open (until 05 Jul 2024)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2024-1262', Anonymous Referee #1, 12 Jun 2024 reply
Kirsten N. Fossum, Chunshui Lin, Niall O'Sullivan, Lu Lei, Stig Hellebust, Darius Ceburnis, Aqeel Afzal, Anja Tremper, David Green, Srishti Jain, Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Colin O'Dowd, John Wenger, and Jurgita Ovadnevaite
Kirsten N. Fossum, Chunshui Lin, Niall O'Sullivan, Lu Lei, Stig Hellebust, Darius Ceburnis, Aqeel Afzal, Anja Tremper, David Green, Srishti Jain, Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Colin O'Dowd, John Wenger, and Jurgita Ovadnevaite

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Short summary
The chemical composition and sources of submicron aerosol in the Dublin Port area were investigated over a month-long campaign. Two distinct types of ship emissions were identified and characterized: sulfate-rich plumes from use of heavy fuel oil with scrubbers and organic-rich plumes from use of low sulfur fuels. The latter were more frequent, emitting double the particle number, and having atypical V/Ni ratio for ship emission.