Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1254
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1254
03 Jun 2024
 | 03 Jun 2024
Status: this preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Multi-year gradient measurements of sea spray fluxes over the Baltic Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean

Piotr Markuszewski, E. Douglas Nilsson, Julika Zinke, E. Monica Mårtensson, Matthew Salter, Przemysław Makuch, Małgorzata Kitowska, Iwona Niedźwiecka-Wróbel, Violetta Drozdowska, Dominik Lis, Tomasz Petelski, Luca Ferrero, and Jacek Piskozub

Abstract. Ship-based measurements of sea spray aerosol (SSA) gradient fluxes in the size range 0.5–47 µm diameter were conducted between 2009–2017 in both the Baltic Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. Measured total SSA fluxes varied between 8.9⸱103 ± 6.8⸱105 m-2 s-1 for the Baltic Sea, and 1.0⸱104 ± 105 m-2 s-1. for the Atlantic Ocean. The analysis uncovered a significant decrease (by a factor of 2.2 in wind speed range 10.5 m s-1–14.5 m s-1) in SSA fluxes with chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration higher than 3.5 mg m-3 in the Baltic Sea area. We found statistically significant correlations for both regions of interest between SSA fluxes and various environmental factors including wind speed, wind acceleration, wave age, significant wave height, and wave Reynolds number. Using these factors, we developed separate parameterizations and compared them with previous studies. Additionally, in both measurement regions we observed weak correlations between SSA fluxes and air and water temperature, as well as atmospheric stability. Comparing the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic, we noted distinct emission behaviours, with higher emissions in the Baltic Sea at low wave age values compared to the Atlantic Ocean. This study represents the first comparative analysis of SSA flux measurements using the same methodology in these contrasting marine environments.

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Piotr Markuszewski, E. Douglas Nilsson, Julika Zinke, E. Monica Mårtensson, Matthew Salter, Przemysław Makuch, Małgorzata Kitowska, Iwona Niedźwiecka-Wróbel, Violetta Drozdowska, Dominik Lis, Tomasz Petelski, Luca Ferrero, and Jacek Piskozub

Status: open (until 15 Jul 2024)

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Piotr Markuszewski, E. Douglas Nilsson, Julika Zinke, E. Monica Mårtensson, Matthew Salter, Przemysław Makuch, Małgorzata Kitowska, Iwona Niedźwiecka-Wróbel, Violetta Drozdowska, Dominik Lis, Tomasz Petelski, Luca Ferrero, and Jacek Piskozub
Piotr Markuszewski, E. Douglas Nilsson, Julika Zinke, E. Monica Mårtensson, Matthew Salter, Przemysław Makuch, Małgorzata Kitowska, Iwona Niedźwiecka-Wróbel, Violetta Drozdowska, Dominik Lis, Tomasz Petelski, Luca Ferrero, and Jacek Piskozub

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Short summary
Sea spray aerosol whipped up from the sea surface, is an important compound of the atmospheric boundary layer. Our research provides new insights into the study of sea spray emission in the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic. We investigated the impact of environmental factors on sea spray fluxes. We observed that in case of increased marine biological activity in the Baltic Sea, sea spray flux is suppressed. We also observed evidence of sea surface temperature influence on sea spray emission.