Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2023-3008
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2023-3008
05 Jan 2024
 | 05 Jan 2024

Stratospheric gravity waves excited by Hurricane Joaquin in 2015: 3-D characteristics and the correlation with hurricane intensification

Xue Wu, Lars Hoffmann, Corwin J. Wright, Neil P. Hindley, M. Joan Alexander, Silvio Kalisch, Xin Wang, Bing Chen, Yinan Wang, and Daren Lyu

Abstract. Despite progress, accurately forecasting tropical cyclone (TC) intensity, especially rapid intensification, remains a significant challenge. The correlations between the stratospheric gravity waves (GWs) excited by TCs and TC intensity have been recognized. However, partly due to the limitations of conventional analysis methods and observational filters of current satellite instruments, the characteristics of stratospheric GWs that indicate TC intensification remain unclear. This study examined the specific characteristics of GWs and their linkage to hurricane intensification by high-resolution, realistic model simulations and 3-D wave analysis method. First, the stratospheric GWs excited by Hurricane Joaquin in 2015 were simulated using the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Then, the GW characteristics were analyzed using the novel 3-D Stockwell transform method. The GWs excited by Hurricane Joaquin are in the mid-frequency range and propagate outward from the hurricane center counterclockwise while moving upward in a spiral. A high-level time-lagged correlation exists between the intensities of the hurricane and stratospheric GWs during hurricane intensification, making it possible to detect an increase in hurricane intensity by observing an increase in stratospheric GW intensities. Compared to the weakening period, the stratospheric GWs excited during hurricane intensification exhibit relatively higher frequencies, shorter horizontal wavelengths, and longer vertical wavelengths, with this contrast particularly evident near the center of the hurricane. This study provides further knowledge for potentially monitoring hurricane intensification by observing stratospheric GWs using satellite instruments in the infrared and microwave bands when it is difficult to use other measurement techniques.

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Xue Wu, Lars Hoffmann, Corwin J. Wright, Neil P. Hindley, M. Joan Alexander, Silvio Kalisch, Xin Wang, Bing Chen, Yinan Wang, and Daren Lyu

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-3008', Anonymous Referee #1, 24 Jan 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-3008', Anonymous Referee #2, 25 Jan 2024
  • RC3: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-3008', Anonymous Referee #3, 26 Jan 2024
Xue Wu, Lars Hoffmann, Corwin J. Wright, Neil P. Hindley, M. Joan Alexander, Silvio Kalisch, Xin Wang, Bing Chen, Yinan Wang, and Daren Lyu
Xue Wu, Lars Hoffmann, Corwin J. Wright, Neil P. Hindley, M. Joan Alexander, Silvio Kalisch, Xin Wang, Bing Chen, Yinan Wang, and Daren Lyu

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Short summary
This study identified a noteworthy time-lagged correlation between hurricane intensity and stratospheric gravity wave intensities during hurricane intensification. Meanwhile, the study reveals distinct frequencies, horizontal wavelengths, and vertical wavelengths in the inner core region during hurricane intensification, offering essential insights for monitoring hurricane intensity via satellite observations of stratospheric gravity waves.