05 Apr 2023
 | 05 Apr 2023

Estimating nitrogen and sulfur deposition across China during 2005–2020 based on multiple statistical models

Kaiyue Zhou, Wen Xu, Lin Zhang, Mingrui Ma, Xuejun Liu, and Yu Zhao

Abstract. Due to the rapid development of industrialization and substantial economy, China has become one of the global hotspots of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition following Europe and the USA. Here, we developed a dataset with full coverage of N and S deposition from 2005 to 2020, with multiple statistical models that combine ground-level observations, chemistry transport simulations, satellite-derived vertical columns, and meteorological and geographic variables. Based on the newly developed random forest method, the multi-year averages of dry deposition of OXN, RDN and S in China were estimated at 10.4, 14.4 and 16.7 kg N/S ha−1 yr−1, and the analogous numbers for total deposition were respectively 15.2, 20.2 and 25.9 kg N/S ha−1 yr−1 when wet deposition estimated previously with a GAM model was included. The Rdry/wet of N stabilized in earlier years and then gradually increased especially for RDN, while that of S declined for over ten years and then slightly increased. RRDN/OXN was estimated to be larger than 1 for the whole research period and clearly larger than that of the USA and Europe, with a continuous decline from 2005 to 2011 and a more prominent rebound afterwards. Compared with the USA and Europe, a more prominent lagging response of OXN and S deposition to precursor emission abatement was found in China. The OXN dry deposition presented a descending gradient from east to west, while the S dry deposition a descending gradient from north to south. After 2012, the OXN and S deposition in eastern China declined faster than the west, attributable to stricter emission controls. Positive correlation was found between regional deposition and emissions, while smaller deposition to emission ratios (D/E) existed in developed eastern China with more intensive human activities.

Kaiyue Zhou et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-620', Anonymous Referee #1, 28 Apr 2023
  • CC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-620', Lei Duan, 01 May 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-620', Lei Duan, 02 May 2023
  • RC3: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-620', Anonymous Referee #3, 09 May 2023

Kaiyue Zhou et al.


Total article views: 291 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
202 75 14 291 23 7 5
  • HTML: 202
  • PDF: 75
  • XML: 14
  • Total: 291
  • Supplement: 23
  • BibTeX: 7
  • EndNote: 5
Views and downloads (calculated since 05 Apr 2023)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 05 Apr 2023)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 303 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 303 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
Latest update: 29 May 2023
Short summary
We developed a dataset of long-term (2005–2020) variabilities of China’s nitrogen and sulfur deposition, with multiple statistical models that combine available observations and chemistry transport modeling. We demonstrated the strong impact of human activities and national pollution control actions on the spatiotemporal changes in deposition, and indicated a relatively small benefit of emission abatement on deposition (and thereby ecological risk) for China compared to Europe and the USA.