Changes in the tropical upper tropospheric zonal momentum balance due to global warming
Abstract. The zonal momentum budget of the deep upper tropics is studied in the context of present and future climates. In the zonal mean, as is known, a robust balance exists between the acceleration by the horizontal eddy momentum flux convergence and the deceleration by the mean meridional momentum advection. During summer, climatological stationary Rossby waves over the Asian monsoon longitudes converge westerly momentum into the tropics and are the primary contributors to the eddy term. During winter, anomalous westerly winds over the tropical East Pacific allow extratropical waves to propagate into the deep tropics, where they tend to break and decelerate the flow. When integrated over all longitudes, eddies from these two regions sum constructively in summer and destructively in winter, always yielding a net positive momentum forcing that balances the mean flow term. The state-of-the-art CMIP6 suite qualitatively captures these features in the historical run and shows that the momentum fluxes change due to global warming. In summer, stationary eddy circulations in the Asian monsoon zone weaken in the upper troposphere (UT) but strengthen in the lower stratosphere (LS). Greater upward mass flux from the troposphere forces a stronger divergence and a more intense circulation in the LS following a Sverdrup vorticity balance. This strengthening of summertime tropical and subtropical stationary waves in the LS is observed over all longitudes and is verified in an idealized aquaplanet general circulation model experiment. In winter, eddy westerlies over the East Pacific longitudes decrease in strength due to the expected weakening of the subtropical stationary waves with warming. This causes a significant decrease in the propagation of extratropical waves into this region, along with a drop in eddy potential vorticity fluxes associated with these waves. Thus, apart from the mean meridional flux, which weakens due to the projected weakening of the Hadley Cells, our analysis of warming simulations clearly suggests significant and robust changes in the eddy momentum fluxes in the deep tropics. Potential implications of these changes in the context of the zonal mean flow and regional circulations are discussed.
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