Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2023-2236
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2023-2236
24 Nov 2023
 | 24 Nov 2023

Investigating the role of typhoon-induced gravity waves and stratospheric hydration in the formation of tropopause cirrus clouds observed during the 2017 Asian monsoon

Amit Kumar Pandit, Jean-Paul Vernier, Thomas Duncan Fairlie, Kristopher M. Bedka, Melody A. Avery, Harish Gadhavi, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Sanjeev Dwivedi, Kasimahanthi Amar Jyothi, Frank G. Wienhold, Holger Vömel, Hongyu Liu, Bo Zhang, Buduru Suneel Kumar, Tra Dinh, and Achuthan Jayaraman

Abstract. We investigate the formation mechanism of a tropopause cirrus cloud layer observed during the Balloon measurement campaigns of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (BATAL) over Hyderabad (17.47° N, 78.58° E), India on 23 August 2017. Simultaneous measurements from a backscatter sonde and an optical particle counter onboard a balloon flight revealed the presence of a subvisible cirrus cloud layer (optical thickness ~0.025) at the cold-point tropopause (temperature ~ -86.4 °C, altitude ~17.9 km). Ice crystals in this layer are smaller than 50 microns with a layer-mean ice-crystal number concentration of about 46.79 L-1. Simultaneous backscatter and extinction coefficient measurements allowed us to estimate range-resolved lidar ratio inside this layer with a layer-mean value of about 32.18±6.73 sr which is in good agreement with earlier reported values at similar cirrus cloud temperatures. The formation mechanism responsible for this tropopause cirrus is investigated using a combination of three-dimensional back-trajectories, satellite observations, and ERA5 reanalysis data. Satellite observations revealed that the overshooting convection associated with a category-3 typhoon Hato, which hit Macau and Hong Kong on 23 August 2017 injected ice into the lower stratosphere. This caused a hydration patch that followed the Asian Summer Monsoon anticyclone to subsequently move towards Hyderabad. The presence of tropopause cirrus cloud layers in the cold temperature anomalies and updrafts along the back-trajectories suggested the role of typhoon-induced gravity waves in their formation. This case study highlights the role of typhoons in influencing the formation of tropopause cirrus clouds through stratospheric hydration and gravity waves.

Amit Kumar Pandit, Jean-Paul Vernier, Thomas Duncan Fairlie, Kristopher M. Bedka, Melody A. Avery, Harish Gadhavi, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Sanjeev Dwivedi, Kasimahanthi Amar Jyothi, Frank G. Wienhold, Holger Vömel, Hongyu Liu, Bo Zhang, Buduru Suneel Kumar, Tra Dinh, and Achuthan Jayaraman

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-2236', Anonymous Referee #2, 13 Dec 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC1', Amit Kumar Pandit, 17 Feb 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-2236', Anonymous Referee #3, 16 Dec 2023
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC2', Amit Kumar Pandit, 17 Feb 2024
  • RC3: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-2236', Anonymous Referee #1, 24 Dec 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC3', Amit Kumar Pandit, 17 Feb 2024
Amit Kumar Pandit, Jean-Paul Vernier, Thomas Duncan Fairlie, Kristopher M. Bedka, Melody A. Avery, Harish Gadhavi, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Sanjeev Dwivedi, Kasimahanthi Amar Jyothi, Frank G. Wienhold, Holger Vömel, Hongyu Liu, Bo Zhang, Buduru Suneel Kumar, Tra Dinh, and Achuthan Jayaraman
Amit Kumar Pandit, Jean-Paul Vernier, Thomas Duncan Fairlie, Kristopher M. Bedka, Melody A. Avery, Harish Gadhavi, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Sanjeev Dwivedi, Kasimahanthi Amar Jyothi, Frank G. Wienhold, Holger Vömel, Hongyu Liu, Bo Zhang, Buduru Suneel Kumar, Tra Dinh, and Achuthan Jayaraman

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Short summary
This study investigates the formation mechanism of a tropopause cirrus cloud layer observed at extremely cold temperatures over Hyderabad in India during the 2017 Asian summer monsoon using balloon-borne sensors. Ice crystals smaller than 50 microns were found in this optically thin cirrus cloud layer. Combined analysis of back-trajectories, satellite, and model data revealed that the formation of this layer was influenced by gravity waves and stratospheric hydration induced by typhoon Hato.