24 Aug 2023
 | 24 Aug 2023

Influence of covariance of aerosol and meteorology on co-located precipitating and non-precipitating clouds over Indo-Gangetic Plains

Nabia Gulistan, Khan Alam, and Yangang Liu

Abstract. Aerosol-cloud-precipitation-interaction (ACPI) plays a pivotal role in the global and regional water cycle and the earth’s energy budget; however, it remains highly uncertain due to the underlying different physical mechanisms. Therefore, this study aims to systematically analyze the effects of aerosols and meteorological factors on ACPI in the co-located precipitating (PCs) and non-precipitating clouds (NPCs) clouds in winter and summer seasons by employing the long-term (2001–2021) retrievals from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis-II datasets over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). The results exhibit a decadal increase in aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Lahore (5.2 %), Delhi (9 %), Kanpur (10.7 %) and Gandhi College (22.7 %) and decrease over Karachi (-1.9 %) and Jaipur (-0.5 %). The most stable meteorology with high values of lower tropospheric stability (LTS) is found in both seasons over Karachi. In summer season the occurrence frequency of clouds is high (74 %) over Gandhi College, 60 % of which are PCs. Conversely, the least number of PCs are found over Karachi. Similarly, in winter season, the frequency of cloud occurrence is low over Karachi and high over Lahore and Gandhi College. The analysis of cloud top pressure (CTP) and cloud optical thickness (COT) indicate high values of cloud fraction (CF) for thick and high-level clouds over all study areas except Karachi. The micro-physical properties such as cloud effective radius (CER) and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) bears high values (CER > ~ 15 µm and CDNC > ~ 50 cm-3) for both NPCs and PCs in summer. The AOD-CER correlation is good (weak) for PCs (NPCs) in winter. Similarly, the sensitivity value of the first indirect effect ( FIE ) is high (ranged from 0.2 ± 0.13 to 0.3 ± 0.01 in winter, and from 0.19 ± 0.03 to 0.32 ± 0.05 in summer) for PCs and low for NPCs. Sensitivity value for second indirect effect (SIE) is relatively high (such as 0.6 ± 0.14 in winters and 0.4 ± 0.04 in summer) than FIE. Sensitivity values of the aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) are low (i.e., -0.06 ± 0.09) for PCs in summers. Furthermore, the precipitation rate (PR) exhibits high values in summer season, and PR values are found high in comparatively thin clouds with fewer CDNC (< ~ 50 cm-3) and intermediate for optically thick clouds with higher CDNC (> ~ 50 cm-3 ).

Nabia Gulistan, Khan Alam, and Yangang Liu

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1865', Anonymous Referee #1, 15 Sep 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Khan Alam, 08 Dec 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1865', Anonymous Referee #2, 25 Sep 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Khan Alam, 08 Dec 2023
Nabia Gulistan, Khan Alam, and Yangang Liu
Nabia Gulistan, Khan Alam, and Yangang Liu


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Short summary
This study investigates the influence of aerosol and meteorology on precipitating and non-precipitating clouds over Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). The major findings of this study include the high loading of aerosols led to a high occurrence of precipitating clouds under unstable conditions in summer. This study has the potential to open a new avenue for the scientific community to further explore and understand the complications of aerosol-cloud-precipitation over the complex topography of IGP.