Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2023-1465
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2023-1465
11 Jul 2023
 | 11 Jul 2023

Long-term studies of the summer wind in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at middle and high latitudes

Juliana Jaen, Toralf Renkwitz, Huixin Liu, Christoph Jacobi, Robin Wing, Aleš Kuchař, Masaki Tsutsumi, Njål Gulbrandsen, and Jorge L. Chau

Abstract. Continuous wind measurements using partial reflection radars and specular meteor radars have been carried out for nearly two decades (2004–2022) at middle and high latitudes over Germany (∼54° N) and northern Norway (∼69° N), respectively. They provide crucial data for understanding the long-term behavior of winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Our investigation mainly focuses on the summer season, characterized by the absence of intense planetary wave activity and relatively stable stratospheric conditions. This work presents the long-term behavior, variability and trends of the maximum velocity of the summer eastward, westward and southward winds. In addition, the geomagnetic influence on the summer zonal and meridional wind is explored at middle and high latitudes. The results show that a westward summer maximum is located around 75 km with velocities of 35–54 m/s, while the eastward wind maximum is observed at ∼97 km with amplitudes of 25–40 m/s. A weaker southward wind peak is found around 86 km ranging from 9–16 m/s. The findings indicate significant trends at middle latitudes in the westward summer maxima with increasing winds over the past decades, while the southward winds show a decreasing trend. On the other hand, only the eastward wind in July has a decreasing trend at high latitudes. Evidence of oscillations around 2–3, 4 and 6 years modulate the maximum velocity of the summer winds. Particularly a periodicity between 10.2–11.3 years found in the westward component is more significant at middle latitudes than at high latitudes, possibly due to solar radiation. Furthermore, stronger geomagnetic activity at high latitudes causes an increase in eastward wind velocity, whereas the opposite effect is observed in zonal jets at middle latitudes. The meridional component appears disturbed during high geomagnetic activity, with a notable decrease in the northward wind strength below approximately 80~km at both latitudes.

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Journal article(s) based on this preprint

01 Dec 2023
Long-term studies of the summer wind in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at middle and high latitudes over Europe
Juliana Jaen, Toralf Renkwitz, Huixin Liu, Christoph Jacobi, Robin Wing, Aleš Kuchař, Masaki Tsutsumi, Njål Gulbrandsen, and Jorge L. Chau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14871–14887, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-23-14871-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-23-14871-2023, 2023
Short summary
Juliana Jaen, Toralf Renkwitz, Huixin Liu, Christoph Jacobi, Robin Wing, Aleš Kuchař, Masaki Tsutsumi, Njål Gulbrandsen, and Jorge L. Chau

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1465', Anonymous Referee #1, 08 Aug 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Juliana Jaen, 11 Sep 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1465', Anonymous Referee #1, 21 Aug 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Juliana Jaen, 11 Sep 2023
  • RC3: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1465', Anonymous Referee #2, 14 Sep 2023

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1465', Anonymous Referee #1, 08 Aug 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Juliana Jaen, 11 Sep 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1465', Anonymous Referee #1, 21 Aug 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Juliana Jaen, 11 Sep 2023
  • RC3: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1465', Anonymous Referee #2, 14 Sep 2023

Peer review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision | EF: Editorial file upload
AR by Juliana Jaen on behalf of the Authors (05 Oct 2023)  Author's response   Author's tracked changes   Manuscript 
ED: Publish as is (18 Oct 2023) by John Plane
AR by Juliana Jaen on behalf of the Authors (19 Oct 2023)  Manuscript 

Journal article(s) based on this preprint

01 Dec 2023
Long-term studies of the summer wind in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at middle and high latitudes over Europe
Juliana Jaen, Toralf Renkwitz, Huixin Liu, Christoph Jacobi, Robin Wing, Aleš Kuchař, Masaki Tsutsumi, Njål Gulbrandsen, and Jorge L. Chau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14871–14887, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-23-14871-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-23-14871-2023, 2023
Short summary
Juliana Jaen, Toralf Renkwitz, Huixin Liu, Christoph Jacobi, Robin Wing, Aleš Kuchař, Masaki Tsutsumi, Njål Gulbrandsen, and Jorge L. Chau
Juliana Jaen, Toralf Renkwitz, Huixin Liu, Christoph Jacobi, Robin Wing, Aleš Kuchař, Masaki Tsutsumi, Njål Gulbrandsen, and Jorge L. Chau

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Short summary
Investigation of winds is important to understand atmospheric dynamics. In the summer mesosphere and lower thermosphere, there are three main wind flows: the mesospheric westward, the mesopause southward (equatorward), and the lower thermospheric eastward wind. Combining almost two decades of measurements from different radars, we study the trend, their inter-annual oscillations, and the effects of the geomagnetic activity over these wind maxima.