02 Sep 2022
02 Sep 2022
Status: this preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).

Automating the Analysis of Hailstone Layers

Joshua Stephen Soderholm1 and Matthew Robert Kumjian2 Joshua Stephen Soderholm and Matthew Robert Kumjian
  • 1Science and Innovation Group, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Docklands, Victoria, Australia
  • 2Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania

Abstract. The layered structures inside hailstones provide a direct indication of their shape and properties at various stages during growth. Given the myriad of different trajectories that can exist, and the sensitivity of rime deposit type to environmental conditions, it must be expected that many different perturbations of hailstone properties occur within a single hailstorm; however, some commonalities are likely in the shared early stages of growth, for hailstones of similar size (especially those that grow along similar trajectories) and final growth near the melting level. It remains challenging to extract this information from a large sample of hailstones because of the time required to prepare cross sections and accurately measure individual layers. To reduce the labour and potential errors introduced by manual analysis of hailstones, an automated method for measuring layers from cross section photographs is introduced and applied to a set of hailstones collected in Melbourne, Australia. This work is motivated by new hail growth simulation tools that model the growth of layers within individual hailstones, for which accurate measurements of observed hailstone cross sections can be applied as validation. A first look at this new type of evaluation for hail growth simulations is demonstrated.

Joshua Stephen Soderholm and Matthew Robert Kumjian

Status: open (until 29 Oct 2022)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse

Joshua Stephen Soderholm and Matthew Robert Kumjian

Data sets

Automating the Analysis of Hailstone Layers Joshua Soderholm

Model code and software

Hail Cross Section Code Joshua Soderholm

Joshua Stephen Soderholm and Matthew Robert Kumjian


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Short summary
Hailstones often exhibit opaque and clear ice layers that have an onion-like appearance. These layers are record of the conditions during growth and can be simulated by hail growth models. A new technique for automating the measurement of these layers from hail cross sections is demonstrated. This technique is applied to a collection of hailstones from Melbourne, Australia to understand their growth evolution and a first look at evaluating a hail growth model is demonstrated.