05 Dec 2022
05 Dec 2022

Optimizing the Carbonic Anhydrase temperature response and stomatal conductance of carbonyl sulfide leaf uptake in the simple biosphere model (SiB4)

Ara Cho1, Linda M. J. Kooijmans1, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen2, Richard Wehr3, and Maarten C. Krol1,4 Ara Cho et al.
  • 1Meteorology and Air Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands
  • 2Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/ Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  • 3Center for Atmospheric and Environmental Chemistry, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA, USA
  • 4Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Abstract. Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) is a useful tracer to estimate Gross Primary Production (GPP) because it shares part of the uptake pathway with CO2. COS is taken up in plants through hydrolysis, catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), but is not released. The Simple Biosphere model version 4 (SiB4) simulates COS leaf uptake using a conductance approach. SiB4 applies the temperature response of the RuBisCo enzyme (used for photosynthesis) to simulate the COS leaf uptake, but the CA enzyme might respond differently. We introduce a new temperature response function for CA in SiB4, based on enzyme kinetics with an optimum temperature. Moreover, we determine Ball-Berry model parameters for stomatal conductance (gs) using observation-based estimates of COS flux, GPP, and gs along with meteorological measurements in an evergreen needleleaf forest (ENF) and deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF). We find that CA has optimum temperatures of 22 °C (ENF) and 38 °C (DBF) with CA’s activation energy as 40 kJ mol-1, which is lower than that of RuBisCo (45 °C), suggesting that air temperature changes can critically affect CA’s catalyzation activity. Optimized values for the Ball-Berry offset parameter b0 (ENF: 0.013, DBF: 0.007 mol m-2 s-1) are higher (lower) than the original value (0.010 mol m-2 s-1) in the ENF (DBF), and optimized values for the Ball-Berry slope parameter b1 (ENF: 16.36, DBF: 11.43) are higher than the original value (9.0) at both sites. We apply the optimized gCA and gs parameters in SiB4 site simulations, thereby improving the timing and peak of COS assimilation. In addition, we show that SiB4 underestimates the leaf humidity stress under conditions where high VPD should limit gs in the afternoon, thereby overestimating gs. Furthermore, we simulate global COS biosphere fluxes, which show smaller COS uptake in the tropics and larger COS uptake at higher latitudes, corresponding with the updates made to the CA temperature response. This SiB4 update helps resolve gaps in the COS budget identified in earlier studies. Using our optimization and additional observations of COS uptake over various climate and plant types, we expect further improvements in global COS biosphere flux estimates.

Ara Cho et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2022-1305', Georg Wohlfahrt, 25 Dec 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2022-1305', Anonymous Referee #2, 11 Jan 2023

Ara Cho et al.

Ara Cho et al.


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Short summary
Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) is a useful constraint on photosynthesis. To simulate COS leaf flux better in the SiB4 model, we propose a new temperature function for the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) and optimize conductances using observations. CA has an optimum temperature below 40 °C, which can be influenced critically by air temperature changes. It brings tropics a smaller and higher latitudes a larger uptake. This update helps resolve gaps in the COS budget identified in earlier studies.