Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-802
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-802
27 Mar 2024
 | 27 Mar 2024
Status: this preprint is open for discussion.

Interferometric Imaging with EISCAT_3D for Fine-Scale In-Beam Incoherent Scatter Spectra Measurements

Devin Huyghebaert, Björn Gustavsson, Juha Vierinen, Andreas Kvammen, Matthew Zettergren, John Swoboda, Ilkka Virtanen, Spencer Hatch, and Karl M. Laundal

Abstract. The 233 MHz EISCAT_3D radar system currently under construction in northern Fennoscandia will be able to resolve ionospheric structures smaller than the transmit beam dimensions through the use of interferometric imaging. This capability is made possible by the modular design and digitisation of the 119 91-antenna panels located at the main Skibotn site. The main array consists of a cluster of 109 panels, with 10 outlier panels producing unique interferometry baselines. In the present study synthesized incoherent scatter radar signal measurements are used for interferometric imaging analysis with the EISCAT_3D system. The Geospace Environment Model of Ion-Neutral Interactions (GEMINI) model is used to simulate a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the cusp region at 50 m resolution to obtain plasma parameters which are then used to generate the synthetic data. The ionospheric data is forward propagated to the EISCAT_3D array, noise is added to the synthetic data, and then an inversion of the data is performed to reconstruct the incoherent scatter spectra at relatively fine scales. By using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) with Tikhonov regularization it is possible to pre-calculate the inversion matrix for a given range and look direction, with the regularization value scaled based on the SNR. The pre-calculation of the inversion matrix can reduce computational overhead in the imaging solution. This study provides a framework for data processing of ion-line incoherent scatter radar spectra to be imaged on fine-scales. Furthermore, with more development it can be used to test experimental set-ups and to design experiments for EISCAT_3D by investigating the needed integration time for various signal-to-noise ratios, beam patterns and ionospheric conditions.

Devin Huyghebaert, Björn Gustavsson, Juha Vierinen, Andreas Kvammen, Matthew Zettergren, John Swoboda, Ilkka Virtanen, Spencer Hatch, and Karl M. Laundal

Status: open (until 12 May 2024)

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Devin Huyghebaert, Björn Gustavsson, Juha Vierinen, Andreas Kvammen, Matthew Zettergren, John Swoboda, Ilkka Virtanen, Spencer Hatch, and Karl M. Laundal
Devin Huyghebaert, Björn Gustavsson, Juha Vierinen, Andreas Kvammen, Matthew Zettergren, John Swoboda, Ilkka Virtanen, Spencer Hatch, and Karl M. Laundal

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Short summary
The EISCAT_3D radar is a new ionospheric radar under construction in the Fennoscandia region. The radar will make measurements of plasma characteristics at altitudes above approximately 60 km. The capability of the system to make these measurements on spatial scales of less than 100 m using the multiple digitised signals from each of the radar antenna panels is highlighted. There are many ionospheric small-scale processes that will be further resolved using the techniques discussed here.