Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-637
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-637
12 Mar 2024
 | 12 Mar 2024

The impact of agriculture on tropical mountain soils in the western Peruvian Andes: a pedo-geoarchaeological study of terrace agricultural systems in the Laramate region (14.5° S)

Fernando Leceta, Christoph Binder, Christian Mader, Bertil Mächtle, Erik Marsh, Laura Dietrich, Markus Reindel, Bernhard Eitel, and Julia Meister

Abstract. This integrated pedo-geoarchaeological study focuses on three abandoned prehispanic terrace agricultural systems near Laramate in the southern Andes of Peru, aiming to unravel the pedological and land-use history of the region. The investigation involved contextualizing the former agricultural management system within its paleoecological framework and assessing the impact of agricultural practices on soil development and quality. The Laramate terrace complex, with its diverse terrace systems and varied geomorphological settings, provided an ideal setting for the investigation. Comparative analyses between non-irrigated agricultural terrace soils and undisturbed reference sequences were conducted, employing a range of methodologies, including surveys, soil analysis, GIS and remote sensing, palaeobotany, and radiocarbon dating.

The study identifies three WRB Reference Soil Groups in the Laramate region: Phaeozems, Andosols, and Anthrosols. Unique characteristics of Phaeozems challenge typical descriptions, influenced by factors such as climatic seasonality, vegetation, fauna, lithology, and aeolian inputs. Despite long-term use, terrace soils (Anthrosols) show no severe degradation, maintaining balanced acidity and nutrient availability for successful crop cultivation. Tillage horizons of all terrace soils exhibit elevated organic matter content, highlighting the sustainability of prehispanic agricultural practices through a consistent application of organic manure. Phytolith concentrations indicate extensive agricultural activities, particularly maize cultivation, with varying patterns suggesting changes in cultivation or fertilization practices over time. Starch grain identification aligns with phytolith analyses, reinforcing maize's significance in the region. Notably, the abandonment of the prehispanic cultivation system was not linked to soil exhaustion or terrace instability.

The prehispanic history of terraced agriculture in the Laramate region extends over four development phases, reflecting dynamic interactions between environmental, cultural, and agricultural factors. The initial phase, from the Formative Paracas period to the Early Nasca period (800 BCE–200 CE), witnessed the establishment of agricultural terraces with simple terrace architecture, while the Middle Horizon (600–1000 CE) saw systematic areal expansion influenced by the Wari culture. Adaptations to drier conditions included terraced agriculture on volcanic soils. The Late Intermediate Period (1000–1450 CE) witnessed hydrological variability and further terrace expansion to lower altitudes and less agriculturally suitable locations. The final phase, marked by the onset of the Hispanic colonial period in 1532 CE, saw the gradual abandonment of terraced agricultural systems due to demographic shifts and reorganization of production systems. Despite this, the historical trajectory underscores the adaptability and resilience of prehispanic communities in the Laramate region, showcasing innovative terrace agriculture as a means of coping with changing environmental conditions across diverse landscape units.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Fernando Leceta, Christoph Binder, Christian Mader, Bertil Mächtle, Erik Marsh, Laura Dietrich, Markus Reindel, Bernhard Eitel, and Julia Meister

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2024-637', Anonymous Referee #1, 10 Apr 2024
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Fernando Leceta, 15 Jun 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2024-637', Anonymous Referee #2, 06 May 2024
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Fernando Leceta, 15 Jun 2024
  • RC3: 'Comment on egusphere-2024-637', Anonymous Referee #3, 08 May 2024
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC3', Fernando Leceta, 15 Jun 2024
Fernando Leceta, Christoph Binder, Christian Mader, Bertil Mächtle, Erik Marsh, Laura Dietrich, Markus Reindel, Bernhard Eitel, and Julia Meister
Fernando Leceta, Christoph Binder, Christian Mader, Bertil Mächtle, Erik Marsh, Laura Dietrich, Markus Reindel, Bernhard Eitel, and Julia Meister

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Short summary
This study explores prehispanic terrace agriculture in the southern Peruvian Andes, focusing on soil development and agricultural impacts. It examines soil types and properties, as well as agricultural practices, and traces the region's agricultural development over four phases, highlighting the resilience of ancient communities. The abandonment of terraces wasn't due to soil degradation, emphasizing the sustainability of prehispanic practices and the adaptation to environmental change.