Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-617
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-617
28 Mar 2024
 | 28 Mar 2024
Status: this preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).

Validation of GEMS tropospheric NO2 columns and their diurnal variation with ground-based DOAS measurements

Kezia Lange, Andreas Richter, Tim Bösch, Bianca Zilker, Miriam Latsch, Lisa K. Behrens, Chisom M. Okafor, Hartmut Bösch, John P. Burrows, Alexis Merlaud, Gaia Pinardi, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Michel Van Roozendael, Steffen Ziegler, Simona Ripperger-Lukosiunaite, Leon Kuhn, Bianca Lauster, Thomas Wagner, Hyunkee Hong, Donghee Kim, Lim-Seok Chang, Kangho Bae, Chang-Keun Song, and Hanlim Lee

Abstract. Instruments for air quality observations on geostationary satellites provide multiple observations per day and allow for the analysis of the diurnal variation of important air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over large areas. The South Korean instrument GEMS on the GK2B satellite was launched in February 2020 and is the first instrument in geostationary orbit that delivers hourly daytime observations of NO2. The measurements with a spatial resolution of 3.5 km x 8 km cover a large part of Asia.

This study compares one year of tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) observations of the operational GEMS L2 product, the scientific GEMS IUP-UB product, the operational TROPOMI product, and ground-based DOAS measurements in South Korea. The GEMS L2 tropospheric NO2 VCDs overestimate the VCDs retrieved from the ground-based observations with a median relative difference of +64 % and a correlation coefficient of 0.75. The median relative difference is -1 % for the GEMS IUP-UB product and -14 % for the TROPOMI product. The evaluation of the GEMS IUP-UB product and the operational TROPOMI product with ground-based measurements is in good agreement with correlation coefficients of 0.82 and 0.88. The scatter in the GEMS products can be reduced when observations are limited to the TROPOMI overpass time.

The observed diurnal variations of the tropospheric NO2 VCDs show a maximum of NO2 during the late morning for urban sites, whereas rural sites show weak or almost no diurnal changes. Investigations of the seasonal diurnal variability show with a minimum in the observed tropospheric NO2 VCDs around noon the importance of chemical loss of NO2 in summer. Most variability is seen in spring and autumn, which dominate the average annual diurnal cycle.

Observations under low wind conditions show strong enhancements of NO2 over the day, especially at polluted sites during winter. This indicates that under calm conditions, dilution and the less effective chemical loss in winter do not balance the accumulating emissions. The impact of transport processes is illustrated by the diurnal variability at a rural site following mean wind patterns for specific seasons and observation times.

Analyzing the weekday-weekend effect, good agreement was found between the different products. However, the GEMS L2 product while agreeing with the other data sets during weekdays shows significantly less reduction on weekends.

Our investigations show that the observed diurnal evolution of NO2 varies significantly at the different measurement sites, with good agreement between the GEMS IUP-UB and ground-based observations. The diurnal variability of tropospheric NO2 VCDs depends on chemistry, emissions, and transport into and out of the measurement region. To interpret the sources and sinks of NO2 requires that all of these factors are considered.

Kezia Lange, Andreas Richter, Tim Bösch, Bianca Zilker, Miriam Latsch, Lisa K. Behrens, Chisom M. Okafor, Hartmut Bösch, John P. Burrows, Alexis Merlaud, Gaia Pinardi, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Michel Van Roozendael, Steffen Ziegler, Simona Ripperger-Lukosiunaite, Leon Kuhn, Bianca Lauster, Thomas Wagner, Hyunkee Hong, Donghee Kim, Lim-Seok Chang, Kangho Bae, Chang-Keun Song, and Hanlim Lee

Status: open (until 03 May 2024)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
Kezia Lange, Andreas Richter, Tim Bösch, Bianca Zilker, Miriam Latsch, Lisa K. Behrens, Chisom M. Okafor, Hartmut Bösch, John P. Burrows, Alexis Merlaud, Gaia Pinardi, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Michel Van Roozendael, Steffen Ziegler, Simona Ripperger-Lukosiunaite, Leon Kuhn, Bianca Lauster, Thomas Wagner, Hyunkee Hong, Donghee Kim, Lim-Seok Chang, Kangho Bae, Chang-Keun Song, and Hanlim Lee
Kezia Lange, Andreas Richter, Tim Bösch, Bianca Zilker, Miriam Latsch, Lisa K. Behrens, Chisom M. Okafor, Hartmut Bösch, John P. Burrows, Alexis Merlaud, Gaia Pinardi, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Michel Van Roozendael, Steffen Ziegler, Simona Ripperger-Lukosiunaite, Leon Kuhn, Bianca Lauster, Thomas Wagner, Hyunkee Hong, Donghee Kim, Lim-Seok Chang, Kangho Bae, Chang-Keun Song, and Hanlim Lee

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Short summary
Instruments for air quality observations on geostationary satellites provide multiple observations per day and allow for the analysis of the diurnal variation of important air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over large areas. The South Korean instrument GEMS, launched in February 2020, is the first instrument in geostationary orbit and covers a large part of Asia. Our investigations show the observed diurnal evolution of NO2 at different measurement sites.