Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-616
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-616
20 Mar 2024
 | 20 Mar 2024
Status: this preprint is open for discussion.

Reviews and syntheses: Biological Indicators of Oxygen Stress in Water Breathing Animals

Michael R. Roman, Andrew H. Altieri, Denise Breitburg, Erica Ferrer, Natalya D. Gallo, Shin-ichi Ito, Karin Limburg, Kenneth Rose, Moriaki Yasuhara, and Lisa A. Levin

Abstract. Anthropogenic warming and nutrient over-enrichment of our oceans have resulted in significant, and often catastrophic, reductions in dissolved oxygen (deoxygenation). Stress on water-breathing animals from this deoxygenation has been shown to occur at all levels of biological organization: cellular; organ; individual; species; population; community; and ecosystem. Most climate forecasts predict increases in ocean deoxygenation, thus it is essential to develop reliable biological indicators of oxygen stress that can be used by regional and global oxygen monitoring efforts to detect and assess the impacts of deoxygenation on ocean life. This review focuses on indicators of low-oxygen stress that are manifest at different levels of biological organization and at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. We compare particular attributes of these indicators to the dissolved oxygen threshold of response, time-scales of response, sensitive life stages and taxa, and the ability to scale the response to oxygen stress across levels of organization. Where there is available evidence, we discuss the interactions of other biological and abiotic stressors on the biological indicators of oxygen stress. We address the utility, confounding effects, and implementation of the biological indicators of oxygen stress for both research and societal applications. Our hope is that further refinement and dissemination of these oxygen stress indicators will provide more direct support for environmental managers, fisheries and mariculture scientists, conservation professionals, and policy makers to confront the challenges of ocean deoxygenation. An improved understanding of the sensitivity of different ocean species, communities and ecosystems to low oxygen stress will empower efforts to design monitoring programs, assess ecosystem health, develop management guidelines, track conditions, and detect low-oxygen events.

Michael R. Roman, Andrew H. Altieri, Denise Breitburg, Erica Ferrer, Natalya D. Gallo, Shin-ichi Ito, Karin Limburg, Kenneth Rose, Moriaki Yasuhara, and Lisa A. Levin

Status: open (until 17 May 2024)

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Michael R. Roman, Andrew H. Altieri, Denise Breitburg, Erica Ferrer, Natalya D. Gallo, Shin-ichi Ito, Karin Limburg, Kenneth Rose, Moriaki Yasuhara, and Lisa A. Levin
Michael R. Roman, Andrew H. Altieri, Denise Breitburg, Erica Ferrer, Natalya D. Gallo, Shin-ichi Ito, Karin Limburg, Kenneth Rose, Moriaki Yasuhara, and Lisa A. Levin

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Short summary
Oxygen-depleted ocean waters have increased worldwide. In order to improve our understanding of the impacts of this oxygen loss on marine life it is essential that we develop reliable indicators that track the negative impacts of low oxygen. We review various indicators of oxygen stress for marine animals including their use, research needs and application to confront the challenges of ocean oxygen loss.