Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1851
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1851
25 Jun 2024
 | 25 Jun 2024
Status: this preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Quantification and characterization of primary biological aerosol particles and bacteria aerosolized from Baltic seawater

Julika Zinke, Gabriel Freitas, Rachel Ann Foster, Paul Zieger, Ernst Douglas Nilsson, Piotr Markuszewski, and Matthew Edward Salter

Abstract. Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) can influence climate and affect human health. To investigate the aerosolization of PBAP with sea spray aerosol (SSA), we conducted ship-based campaigns in the central Baltic Sea near Östergarnsholm in May and August 2021. Using a plunging jet sea spray simulation chamber filled with local seawater, we performed controlled chamber experiments to collect filters and measure aerosols. We determined the abundance of bacteria in the chamber air and seawater by staining and fluorescence microscopy, normalizing these values to sodium concentration to calculate enrichment factors. Our results showed that bacteria were enriched in the aerosol by 13 to 488 times compared to the underlying seawater, with no significant enrichment observed in the sea surface microlayer. Bacterial abundances obtained through microscopy were compared with estimates of fluorescent PBAP (fPBAP) using a single-particle fluorescence spectrometer. We estimated bacterial emission fluxes using two independent approaches: (1) applying the enrichment factors derived from this study with mass flux estimates from previous SSA parameterizations, and (2) using a scaling approach from a companion study. Both methods produced bacterial emission flux estimates that were in good agreement and on the same order of magnitude as previous studies, while fPBAP emission flux estimates were significantly lower. Furthermore, 16S rRNA sequencing identified the diversity of bacteria enriched in the nascent SSA compared to the underlying seawater.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Julika Zinke, Gabriel Freitas, Rachel Ann Foster, Paul Zieger, Ernst Douglas Nilsson, Piotr Markuszewski, and Matthew Edward Salter

Status: open (until 07 Aug 2024)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • CC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2024-1851', Simeng Zhang, 19 Jul 2024 reply
Julika Zinke, Gabriel Freitas, Rachel Ann Foster, Paul Zieger, Ernst Douglas Nilsson, Piotr Markuszewski, and Matthew Edward Salter
Julika Zinke, Gabriel Freitas, Rachel Ann Foster, Paul Zieger, Ernst Douglas Nilsson, Piotr Markuszewski, and Matthew Edward Salter

Viewed

Total article views: 208 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
157 38 13 208 23 7 8
  • HTML: 157
  • PDF: 38
  • XML: 13
  • Total: 208
  • Supplement: 23
  • BibTeX: 7
  • EndNote: 8
Views and downloads (calculated since 25 Jun 2024)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 25 Jun 2024)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 205 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 205 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 
Latest update: 24 Jul 2024
Download
Short summary
Bioaerosols, which can influence climate and human health, were studied in the Baltic Sea. In May and August 2021, we used a sea spray simulation chamber on two ship based campaigns to collect and measure these aerosols. We found that bacteria were enriched in the air compared to seawater. Bacterial diversity was analyzed using DNA sequencing. Our methods provided consistent estimates of bacterial emission fluxes, aligning with previous studies.