Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1453
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1453
14 Jun 2024
 | 14 Jun 2024
Status: this preprint is open for discussion.

Carbon sequestration in different urban vegetation types in Southern Finland

Laura Thölix, Leif Backman, Minttu Havu, Esko Karvinen, Jesse Soininen, Justine Trémeau, Olli Nevalainen, Joyson Ahongshangbam, Leena Järvi, and Liisa Kulmala

Abstract. Many cities seek carbon neutrality and are therefore interested in the sinks of urban vegetation. However, the heterogeneous nature of urban vegetation and environmental conditions limit comprehensive measurement efforts setting expectations for carbon cycle modelling. In this study, we examined the performance of three models – JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS, and SUEWS – in estimating carbon sequestration rates in both irrigated and non-irrigated lawns, park trees (Tilia cordata), and urban forests (Betula pendula) in Helsinki, Finland. The test data included observations of various environmental parameters and component fluxes such as soil moisture and temperature, sap flow, leaf area index, momentary photosynthesis, soil respiration, and net ecosystem exchange. Our analysis revealed that these models effectively simulated seasonal and annual variations, as well as the impacts of weather events on carbon fluxes and related factors. However, validating absolute flux levels proved challenging due to observational constraints, particularly concerning mature trees and that in urban areas net ecosystem exchange measurements include some anthropogenic emissions. Irrigation emerged as a key factor often improving carbon sequestration while tree-covered areas demonstrated greater carbon sequestration rates compared with lawns on an annual scale. Notably, all models demonstrated similar mean net ecosystem exchange across a studied urban vegetation area on an annual scale over the study period. However, compared to JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS exhibited higher carbon sequestration rates in tree-covered areas but lower rates in grassland types. All models indicated notable year-to-year differences in annual sequestration rates, but since the same factors, such as temperature and soil moisture, affect processes both assimilating and releasing carbon, connecting the years of high or low carbon sequestration to key meteorological means failed. Overall, this research emphasizes the importance of integrating diverse vegetation types and impacts of irrigation into urban carbon modelling efforts to inform sustainable urban planning and climate change mitigation strategies.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Laura Thölix, Leif Backman, Minttu Havu, Esko Karvinen, Jesse Soininen, Justine Trémeau, Olli Nevalainen, Joyson Ahongshangbam, Leena Järvi, and Liisa Kulmala

Status: open (until 16 Aug 2024)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2024-1453', Anonymous Referee #1, 11 Jul 2024 reply
Laura Thölix, Leif Backman, Minttu Havu, Esko Karvinen, Jesse Soininen, Justine Trémeau, Olli Nevalainen, Joyson Ahongshangbam, Leena Järvi, and Liisa Kulmala

Data sets

Model results L. Thölix, L. Backman, and M. Havu https://doi.org/10.57707/fmi-b2share.0cb5e547dd2f48da89c1b690604dd3d0

Manual GPP of lawn J. Trémeau, E. Karvinen, and B. Olascoaga https://doi.org/10.23728/fmi-b2share.920c1e5f08a74a6d9dfcb3a08cfc6734

Soil temperature, moisture and respiration E. Kravinen https://doi.org/10.57707/fmi-b2share.f7ba414bfd3642168ac38a95835b06bc

Manual GPP and sapflow of trees J. Ahongshangbam https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7525319

LAI O. Nevalainen https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5993292

NEE L. Järvi https://doi.org/10.57707/fmi-b2share.e638f63a3e6f45eb890e964726154964

Automatic GPP L. Kulmala https://doi.org/10.57707/fmi-b2share.840b8a856abf43e18b3fbb329eed5305

Laura Thölix, Leif Backman, Minttu Havu, Esko Karvinen, Jesse Soininen, Justine Trémeau, Olli Nevalainen, Joyson Ahongshangbam, Leena Järvi, and Liisa Kulmala

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Short summary
Cities seek carbon neutrality and are interested in the sinks of urban vegetation. Measurements are difficult to do which leads to the need for modeling carbon cycle. In this study, we examined the performance of models in estimating carbon sequestration rates in lawns, park trees, and urban forests in Helsinki, Finland. We found that models simulated seasonal and annual variations well. Trees had larger carbon sequestration rates compared with lawns and irrigation often increased carbon sink.