Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-125
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-125
25 Jan 2024
 | 25 Jan 2024

Development and deployment of a mid-cost CO2 sensor monitoring network to support atmospheric inverse modeling for quantifying urban CO2 emissions in Paris

Jinghui Lian, Olivier Laurent, Mali Chariot, Luc Lienhardt, Michel Ramonet, Hervé Utard, Thomas Lauvaux, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Karina Cucchi, Laurent Millair, and Philippe Ciais

Abstract. To effectively monitor the highly heterogeneous urban CO2 emissions using atmospheric observations, there is a need to deploy cost-effective CO2 sensors at multiple locations within the city with sufficient accuracy to capture the concentration gradients in urban environments. Its measurements could be used as input of an atmospheric inversion system for the quantification of emissions at the sub-city scale or separate specific sectors. Such quantification would offer valuable insights into the efficacy of local initiatives and could also identify unknown emission hotspots that require attention. Here we present the development and evaluation of a mid-cost CO2 instrument designed for continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO2 concentrations with a target accuracy of 1 ppm on hourly mean measurement. We assess the sensor sensitivity in relation to environmental factors such as humidity, pressure, temperature and CO2 signal, which leads to the development of an effective calibration algorithm. Since July 2020, eight mid-cost instruments have been installed within the city of Paris and its vicinity to provide continuous CO2 measurements, complementing the seven high-precision Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) stations that have been in operation since 2016. A data processing system, called CO2calqual, has been implemented to automatically handle data quality control, calibration and storage, which enables the management of extensive real-time CO2 measurements from the monitoring network. Colocation assessments with the high-precision instrument show that the accuracies of the eight mid-cost instruments are within the range of 1.0 to 2.4 ppm for hourly afternoon (12–17 UTC) measurements. The long-term stability issues require manual data checks and instrument maintenance. The analyses show that CO2 measurements can provide evidence for underestimations of CO2 emissions in the Paris region and a lack of several emission point sources in the emission inventory. Our study demonstrates promising prospects in integrating mid-cost measurements along with high precision data into the subsequent atmospheric inverse modeling to improve the accuracy of quantifying the fine-scale CO2 emissions in the Paris metropolitan area.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Jinghui Lian, Olivier Laurent, Mali Chariot, Luc Lienhardt, Michel Ramonet, Hervé Utard, Thomas Lauvaux, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Karina Cucchi, Laurent Millair, and Philippe Ciais

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2024-125', Anonymous Referee #1, 04 Mar 2024
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Jinghui Lian, 12 Jun 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2024-125', Anonymous Referee #2, 29 Apr 2024
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Jinghui Lian, 12 Jun 2024
  • RC3: 'Comment on egusphere-2024-125', Anonymous Referee #3, 30 Apr 2024
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC3', Jinghui Lian, 12 Jun 2024
Jinghui Lian, Olivier Laurent, Mali Chariot, Luc Lienhardt, Michel Ramonet, Hervé Utard, Thomas Lauvaux, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Karina Cucchi, Laurent Millair, and Philippe Ciais
Jinghui Lian, Olivier Laurent, Mali Chariot, Luc Lienhardt, Michel Ramonet, Hervé Utard, Thomas Lauvaux, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Karina Cucchi, Laurent Millair, and Philippe Ciais

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Short summary
We have designed and deployed a mid-cost medium-precision CO2 sensor monitoring network in Paris since July 2020. The data are automatically calibrated by a newly implemented data processing system. The accuracies of the mid-cost instruments vary from 1.0 to 2.4 ppm for hourly afternoon measurements. Our model-data analyses highlight prospects for integrating mid-cost instrument data with high-precision measurements to improve fine-scale CO2 emission quantification in urban areas.