Optimizing the terrestrial ecosystem gross primary productivity using carbonyl sulfide (COS) within a “two-leaf” modeling framework
Abstract. Accurately modeling gross primary productivity (GPP) is of great importance in diagnosing terrestrial carbon-climate feedbacks. Process-based terrestrial ecosystem models are often subject to substantial uncertainties, primarily attributed to inadequately calibrated parameters. Recent attention has identified carbonyl sulfide (COS) as a promising proxy of GPP, due to the close linkage between leaf exchange of COS and carbon dioxide (CO2) through their shared pathway of stomatal diffusion. However, most of the current modeling approaches for COS and CO2 did not explicitly consider the vegetation structural impacts, i.e. the differences between the sun-shade and sunlit leaves in COS uptake. This study used ecosystem COS fluxes data from 7 sites to optimize GPP estimation across various ecosystems with the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), which was further developed for simulating the leaf COS uptake under its state-of-the-art ‘two-leaf’ framework. Our results demonstrated the substantial improvement in GPP simulation across various ecosystems through the fusion of COS data into the ‘two-leaf’ model, with the ensemble mean of root mean square error (RMSE) for simulated GPP reduced by 18.99 % to 66.64 %. Notably, we also shed light on the remarkable identifiability of key parameters within the BEPS model, including the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco at 25 °C (Vcmax25), minimum stomatal conductance (bH2O), and leaf nitrogen content (Nleaf), despite intricate interactions among COS-related parameters. Furthermore, our global sensitivity analysis delineated both shared and disparate sensitivities of COS and GPP to model parameters and suggested the unique treatment of parameters for each site in COS and GPP modeling. In summary, our study deepened insights into the sensitivity, identifiability, and interactions of parameters related to COS, and showcased the efficacy of COS in reducing uncertainty in GPP simulations.
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