Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2023-2359
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2023-2359
19 Jan 2024
 | 19 Jan 2024

Measurement report: Contribution of atmospheric new particle formation to ultrafine particle concentration, cloud condensation nuclei and radiative forcing: Results from five-year observations in Central Europe 

Jia Sun, Markus Hermann, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Wolfram Birmili, Yifan Yang, Thomas Tuch, Harald Flentje, Björn Briel, Ludwig Ries, Cedric Couret, Michael Elsasser, Ralf Sohmer, Klaus Wirtz, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Schütze, Olaf Bath, Bryan Hellack, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, Nan Ma, and Alfred Wiedensohler

Abstract. As an important source of sub-micrometer particles, atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) has been observed in various environments. However, most studies provide little more than snapshots of the NPF process due to their underlying observations being limited in space and time. To obtain statistically relevant evidence on NPF across various environments, we investigated the characteristics of NPF based on a five-year dataset of the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN). The results were also compared with the observations in previous studies, aiming to depict a relatively complete picture of NPF in Central Europe. The highest NPF frequency was observed in regional background, with an average of about 20 %, followed by urban background (15 %), low mountain range (8 %) and high Alpine (3 %). The annual mean growth rate varied from 3.67 to 4.70 nm h−1, while the formation rate from 0.43 to 2.89 cm−3 s−1. The contribution of NPF on UFPs was about 13 %, 21 %, and 7 % for the urban background, regional background, and low mountain range, respectively. The influence of NPF on CCN number concentration and aerosol extinction coefficient for NPF days were the highest in mountainous area. These findings underscore the importance of the local environments when assessing the potential impact of NPF on regional climate in models, and also emphasize the usefulness of a long-term aerosol measurement network for understanding the variation of NPF features and their influencing factors over a regional scale.

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Jia Sun, Markus Hermann, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Wolfram Birmili, Yifan Yang, Thomas Tuch, Harald Flentje, Björn Briel, Ludwig Ries, Cedric Couret, Michael Elsasser, Ralf Sohmer, Klaus Wirtz, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Schütze, Olaf Bath, Bryan Hellack, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, Nan Ma, and Alfred Wiedensohler

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-2359', Anonymous Referee #2, 30 Jan 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-2359', Anonymous Referee #1, 09 Feb 2024
Jia Sun, Markus Hermann, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Wolfram Birmili, Yifan Yang, Thomas Tuch, Harald Flentje, Björn Briel, Ludwig Ries, Cedric Couret, Michael Elsasser, Ralf Sohmer, Klaus Wirtz, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Schütze, Olaf Bath, Bryan Hellack, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, Nan Ma, and Alfred Wiedensohler

Data sets

Particle number size distributions and equivalent black carbon mass concentrations in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN) Wolfram Birmili, Kay Weinhold, Fabian Rasch, André Sonntag, Jia Sun, Maik Merkel, Alfred Wiedensohler, Susanne Bastian, Alexander Schladitz, Gunter Löschau, Josef Cyrys, Mike Pitz, Jianwei Gu, Thomas Kusch, Harald Flentje, Ulrich Quass, Heinz Kaminski, Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch, Frank Meinhardt, Andreas Schwerin, Olaf Bath, Ludwig Ries, Holger Gerwig, Klaus Wirtz, and Markus Fiebig https://ebas-data.nilu.no/Default.aspx

Jia Sun, Markus Hermann, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Wolfram Birmili, Yifan Yang, Thomas Tuch, Harald Flentje, Björn Briel, Ludwig Ries, Cedric Couret, Michael Elsasser, Ralf Sohmer, Klaus Wirtz, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Schütze, Olaf Bath, Bryan Hellack, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, Nan Ma, and Alfred Wiedensohler

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Short summary
We investigated the characteristics of new particle formation (NPF) for various environments from urban background to high Alpine, and the impacts of NPF on cloud condensation nuclei and aerosol radiative forcing. The NPF features differ between site categories, implying the crucial role of local environments such as degree of emissions and meteorological conditions. The results also underscore the importance of the local environments when assessing the impact of NPF on climate in models.