16 Jun 2023
 | 16 Jun 2023

Sea spray emissions from the Baltic Sea: Comparison of aerosol eddy covariance fluxes and chamber-simulated sea spray emissions

Julika Zinke, E. Douglas Nilsson, Piotr Markuszewski, Paul Zieger, E. Monica Mårtensson, Anna Rutgersson, Erik Nilsson, and Matthew E. Salter

Abstract. To bridge the gap between in situ and laboratory estimates of sea spray aerosol (SSA) production fluxes, we conducted two research campaigns in the vicinity of an eddy covariance (EC) flux tower on the island of Östergarnsholm in the Baltic Sea during May and August 2021. To accomplish this, we performed EC flux measurements simultaneously with laboratory measurements using a plunging jet sea spray simulation chamber containing local seawater sampled close to the footprint of the flux tower. We observed a log-linear relationship between wind speed and EC-derived SSA emission fluxes, a power-law relationship between significant wave height and EC-derived SSA emission fluxes, and a linear relationship between wave Reynolds number and EC-derived SSA emission fluxes, all of which are consistent with earlier studies. Although we observed a weak negative relationship between particle production in the sea spray simulation chamber and seawater chlorophyll-α concentration and a weak positive relationship with the concentration of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in seawater, we did not observe any significant impact of dissolved oxygen on particle production in the chamber.

To obtain an estimate of the size-resolved emission spectrum for particles with dry diameters between 0.015 and 10 μm, we combined the estimates of SSA particle production fluxes obtained using the EC measurements and the chamber measurements in three different ways: 1) using the traditional continuous whitecap method, 2) using air entrainment measurements, and 3) simply scaling the chamber data to the EC fluxes. In doing so, we observed that the magnitude of the EC-derived emission fluxes compared relatively well to the magnitude of the fluxes obtained using the chamber air entrainment method, as well as the previous flux measurements of Nilsson et al. (2021) and the parameterisations of Mårtensson et al. (2003) and Salter et al. (2015). As a result of these measurements, we have derived a wind speed-dependent and wave state-dependent SSA parameterization for particles with dry diameters between 0.015 and 10 μm for low-salinity waters such as the Baltic Sea, thus providing a more accurate estimation of SSA production fluxes.

Julika Zinke et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-966', Anonymous Referee #1, 25 Jun 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Julika Zinke, 26 Jul 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-966', Mingxi Yang, 14 Jul 2023
  • RC3: 'Review of Zinke et al.', Anonymous Referee #3, 26 Jul 2023

Julika Zinke et al.


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Short summary
We conducted two research campaigns in the Baltic Sea, during which we combined laboratory sea spray simulation experiments with flux measurements on a nearby island. To combine these two methods, we scaled the laboratory measurements to the flux measurements using three different approaches. As a result, we derived a parameterization that is dependent on wind speed and wave state for particles with diameters 0.015–10 μm. This parameterization is applicable to low-salinity waters.