27 Oct 2023
 | 27 Oct 2023
Status: this preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Upper Atmosphere Responses to the 2022 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai Volcanic Eruption via Acoustic-Gravity Waves and Air-Sea Interaction

Qinzeng Li, Jiyao Xu, Aditya Riadi Gusman, Hanli Liu, Wei Yuan, Weijun Liu, Yajun Zhu, and Xiao Liu

Abstract. Multi-group of strong atmospheric waves (wave packet #1–#5) over China associated with the 2022 Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha’apai (HTHH) volcano eruptions were observed in the mesopause region using a ground-based airglow network. The phase speed wave packet #1 and wave packet #2 is approximately 312 m/s and 238 m/s respectively, which is consistent with Lamb wave L0 mode and L1 mode from theoretical prediction. The wave fronts of Lamb wave L0 and L1 below the lower thermosphere are vertical, while the wave fronts of L0 mode tilt forward above exhibiting internal wave characteristics, which show good agreement with the theoretical results. Two types of tsunamis were simulated, one type of tsunami is induced by the atmospheric pressure wave (TIAPW) and the other type tsunami is directly induced by the Tonga volcano eruption (TITVE). From backward ray tracing analysis, the TIAPW and TITVE were likely the sources of the acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) accompanying wave packet #2 and wave packet #4–5, respectively. The scale of tsunamis near the coast is very consistent with the atmospheric AGWs observed by the airglow network. The AGWs triggered by TITVE propagate nearly 3000 km inland with the support of duct and persist for about 4.5 hr and almost covers the Chinese Mainland. The atmospheric pressure wave can directly affect the upper atmosphere, and can also be coupled with the upper atmosphere through the indirect way of generating tsunami and subsequently tsunami generating AGWs, which will provide a new understanding of the coupling between ocean and atmosphere.

Qinzeng Li et al.

Status: open (until 05 Jan 2024)

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  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-2429', Anonymous Referee #1, 21 Nov 2023 reply

Qinzeng Li et al.

Qinzeng Li et al.


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Short summary
The 2022 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai (HTHH) volcano eruption not only triggered broad spectrum atmospheric waves, but also generated unusual tsunamis which can generate AGWs. Multi-group of strong atmospheric waves were observed in the far-field area of the 2022 HTHH volcano eruption in the upper atmosphere by a ground-based airglow network. The AGWs caused by tsunamis can propagate to the mesopause region, and there is a good match between atmospheric waves and tsunamis.