Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2023-1102
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2023-1102
30 May 2023
 | 30 May 2023

Bulk and molecular-level composition of primary organic aerosol from wood, straw, cow dung, and plastic burning

Jun Zhang, Kun Li, Tiantian Wang, Erlend Gammelsæter, Ka Yuen Cheung, Mihnea Surdu, Sophie Bogler, Deepika Bhattu, Dongyu S. Wang, Tianqu Cui, Lu Qi, Houssni Lamkaddam, Imad El Haddad, Jay G. Slowik, Andre S. H. Prevot, and David M. Bell

Abstract. During the past decades, the source apportionment of organic aerosol (OA) in the ambient air has been improving substantially. The database of source retrieval model resolved mass spectral profiles for different sources has been built with the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). However, distinguishing similar sources (such as wildfires and residential wood burning) remains challenging, as the hard ionization of AMS mostly fragments compounds and therefore cannot capture the detailed molecular information. Recent mass spectrometer technologies of soft ionization and high mass resolution have allowed for aerosol characterization at the molecular formula level. In this study, we systematically estimated the emission factors and characterized the primary OA (POA) chemical composition with the AMS and the extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF) for the first time from a variety of solid fuels, including beech logs, spruce and pine logs, spruce and pine branches and needles, straw, cow dung, and plastic bags. The emission factors of organic matter and hydrocarbon gases are 16.2 ± 10.8 g kg-1 higher than that of wood (beech, spruce, and pine), straw, and plastic bags burning (in the range from 1.3 to 6.2 g kg-1 and 30.3 ± 8.5 g kg-1 for cow dung burning, which is generally 0.003 to 0.04 based on fuel types and combustion efficiency for wood (beech, spruce, and pine) and cow dung and 2.8 to 9.4 g kg-1). The POA measured by the AMS shows that the f60 (mass fraction of m/z 60) varies from burning. The contribution of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is linked to burning fuels. On molecular level, the dominant compound of POA from wood, straw, and cow dung is C6H10O5 (mainly levoglucosan), contributing ~7 % to ~30 % of the total intensity, followed by C8H12O6 with fractions of ~2 % to ~9 %. However, as they are prevalent in all burns of biomass material, they cannot act as tracers for the specific sources. By using the Mann-Whitney U test among the studied fuels, we find specific potential new markers for these fuels from the measurement of the AMS and EESI-TOF. Markers from spruce and pine burning could be resin and conifer needle-related. The product from pyrolysis of hardwood lignins is found especially in beech logs burning. Nitrogen-containing species are selected markers primarily for cow dung open burning. These markers provide important support for the source apportionment.

Journal article(s) based on this preprint

24 Nov 2023
Bulk and molecular-level composition of primary organic aerosol from wood, straw, cow dung, and plastic burning
Jun Zhang, Kun Li, Tiantian Wang, Erlend Gammelsæter, Rico K. Y. Cheung, Mihnea Surdu, Sophie Bogler, Deepika Bhattu, Dongyu S. Wang, Tianqu Cui, Lu Qi, Houssni Lamkaddam, Imad El Haddad, Jay G. Slowik, Andre S. H. Prevot, and David M. Bell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14561–14576, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-23-14561-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-23-14561-2023, 2023
Short summary

Jun Zhang et al.

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1102', Yutong Liang, 12 Jun 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Jun Zhang, 22 Sep 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1102', Anonymous Referee #2, 13 Jun 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Jun Zhang, 22 Sep 2023
  • RC3: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1102', Anonymous Referee #3, 14 Jun 2023
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC3', Jun Zhang, 22 Sep 2023
  • RC4: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1102', Anonymous Referee #4, 20 Jun 2023
    • AC4: 'Reply on RC4', Jun Zhang, 22 Sep 2023

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1102', Yutong Liang, 12 Jun 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Jun Zhang, 22 Sep 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1102', Anonymous Referee #2, 13 Jun 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Jun Zhang, 22 Sep 2023
  • RC3: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1102', Anonymous Referee #3, 14 Jun 2023
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC3', Jun Zhang, 22 Sep 2023
  • RC4: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-1102', Anonymous Referee #4, 20 Jun 2023
    • AC4: 'Reply on RC4', Jun Zhang, 22 Sep 2023

Peer review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision | EF: Editorial file upload
AR by Jun Zhang on behalf of the Authors (22 Sep 2023)  Author's response   Author's tracked changes   Manuscript 
ED: Publish as is (26 Sep 2023) by Arthur Chan
AR by Jun Zhang on behalf of the Authors (26 Sep 2023)

Journal article(s) based on this preprint

24 Nov 2023
Bulk and molecular-level composition of primary organic aerosol from wood, straw, cow dung, and plastic burning
Jun Zhang, Kun Li, Tiantian Wang, Erlend Gammelsæter, Rico K. Y. Cheung, Mihnea Surdu, Sophie Bogler, Deepika Bhattu, Dongyu S. Wang, Tianqu Cui, Lu Qi, Houssni Lamkaddam, Imad El Haddad, Jay G. Slowik, Andre S. H. Prevot, and David M. Bell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14561–14576, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-23-14561-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-23-14561-2023, 2023
Short summary

Jun Zhang et al.

Viewed

Total article views: 748 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
499 219 30 748 62 11 21
  • HTML: 499
  • PDF: 219
  • XML: 30
  • Total: 748
  • Supplement: 62
  • BibTeX: 11
  • EndNote: 21
Views and downloads (calculated since 30 May 2023)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 30 May 2023)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 729 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 729 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 

Cited

Latest update: 06 Dec 2023
Download

The requested preprint has a corresponding peer-reviewed final revised paper. You are encouraged to refer to the final revised version.

Short summary
We conducted burning experiments to simulate various types of solid fuel combustion, including residential burning, wildfires, agricultural burning, cow dung, and plastic bags burning. The chemical composition of the particles was characterized using mass spectrometers, and new potential markers for different fuels were identified using statistical analysis. This work improves our understanding of emissions from solid fuel burning and offers support for refined source apportionment.