12 May 2022
12 May 2022
Status: this preprint is open for discussion.

Comparison of middle- and low-latitude sodium layer from a ground-based lidar network, the Odin satellite, and WACCM-Na model

Bingkun Yu1,2, Xianghui Xue1,3,4,5,6, Christopher J. Scott2, Mingjiao Jia7, Wuhu Feng8,9, John M. C. Plane8, Daniel R. Marsh8,10, Jonas Hedin11, Jörg Gumbel11, and Xiankang Dou1,12 Bingkun Yu et al.
  • 1CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China
  • 2Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK
  • 3CAS Center for Excellence in Comparative Planetology, Hefei, China
  • 4Anhui Mengcheng Geophysics National Observation and Research Station, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China
  • 5Hefei National Laboratory for the Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China
  • 6Frontiers Science Center for Planetary Exploration and Emerging Technologies, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China
  • 7Shandong Guoyao Quantum Lidar Co., Ltd., Jinan, Shandong, China
  • 8School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
  • 9National Center for Atmospheric Science, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
  • 10National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 11Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 12Electronic Information School, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

Abstract. The ground-based measurements obtained from a lidar network and the six-year OSIRIS limb-scanning radiance measurements made by the Odin satellite are used to study the climatology of the middle- and low-latitude sodium (Na) layer. Up to January 2021, four Na resonance fluorescence lidars at Beijing (40.2° N, 116.2° E), Hefei (31.8° N, 117.3° E), Wuhan (30.5° N, 114.4° E), and Haikou (19.5° N, 109.1° E) collected vertical profiles of Na density for a total of 2,136 nights (19,587 h). These large datasets provide routine long-term measurements of the Na layer with exceptionally high temporal and vertical resolution. The lidar measurements are particularly useful for filling in OSIRIS data gaps since the OSIRIS measurements were not made during the dark winter months because they utilise the solar-pumped resonance fluorescence from Na atoms. The observations of Na layers from the ground-based lidars and the satellite are comprehensively compared with a global model of meteoric Na in the atmosphere (WACCM-Na). The lidars present a unique test of OSIRIS and WACCM, because they cover the latitude range along 120° E longitude in an unusual geographic location with significant gravity wave generation. In general, good agreement is found between lidar observations, satellite measurements, and WACCM simulations. Whereas the Na number density from OSIRIS is slightly larger than that from the Na lidars at the four stations within one standard deviation of the OSIRIS monthly average, particularly in autumn and early winter arising from significant uncertainties in Na density retrieved from much less satellite radiance measurements. WACCM underestimates the seasonal variability of the Na layer observed at the lower latitude lidar stations (Wuhan and Haikou). This discrepancy suggests the seasonal variability of vertical constituent transport modeled in WACCM is underestimated because much of the gravity wave spectrum is not captured in the model.

Bingkun Yu et al.

Status: open (until 23 Jun 2022)

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  • CC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2022-187', Fabrizio Sassi, 16 May 2022 reply

Bingkun Yu et al.

Bingkun Yu et al.


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Short summary
We present a study on the climatology of the metal sodium layer in the upper atmosphere, from the ground-based measurements obtained from a lidar network, the Odin satellite measurements, and a global model of meteoric sodium in the atmosphere. Comprehensively comparisons show good agreement and some discrepancies between ground-based observations, satellite measurements, and global model simulations.